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Cotton is the largest natural fiber source. Worldly, more than 80 countries produce cotton. Pakistan is fourth main cotton growing country in the world after China, India and USA and responsible for 2/3rd manufacturing of world’s cotton. According to Economic survey of Pakistan cotton is responsible 1.6% to GDP. Cotton is facing abiotic and biotic stresses and drought stress is most important natural disaster. Waxes play major role against these stresses.

Identifica ... Continue Reading


  • Beach pollution is a persistent problem.
  • The pollution is closely related to tourism.
  • Tourism is essential for the country people and local people.
  • Sustainable tourism is the best option to protect the beach environment and biodiversity.
  • Data were collected by direct observation and key informant interviews.



Written by Jabatan Perkhidmatan Veterinar Negeri Selangor, all the chickens including the village chicken in this area come from four kinds of jungle that have been crushed. Local cottage chicken in Malaysia is a result of a cross of Malaysian red chicken (Gallus gallus) with overseas chicken breeds such as Barred Plymouth Rock, New Hampshire, Austrorp, Brown Leghorn, Cornish, Canton and so on. Pure chicken breeds from various countries have been imported as early as the 50& ... Continue Reading

In India the Lonar Crater Lake, popularly called as the Lonar soda lake is situated in the Buldhana district of the Maharashtra state said to be the formation of largest craters in the world due to high velocity meteoritic impact on basaltic rock. It is said that it is more than 50,000 years old. Studies reported on microbial diversity of alkaline/saline environments gives clue that earliest microbial life on earth might have been haloalkaliphiles. In the ecosystem it is said that alkali ... Continue Reading

Synthetic biology is the design, construction and creation of new biological systems and/or even synthetic life (microbial cells). The extent of innovations through synthetic biology approaches includes bioactive compounds, biomolecules, biosensors, microbial cell factories and redesign of existing biological networks. This field was emerged as an advancement of traditional biology to genetic engineering, cloning, genome engineering and now as synthetic biology. Synthetic Biology in micr ... Continue Reading

Endodontics, being a dynamic subject, need upgradation on periodic basis; coupled with incorporating wishes of the readers. The present edition in your hands is the outcome on the basis of suggestions of my friends pursuing Endodontics and all my student interested in the subject.

Tremendous changes have occurred since the first edition was published; both in our understanding of the basic biology of the disease process as well as the development of techniques and gadgets used in En ... Continue Reading

Soil degradation is one of the principal cause of continuous decrease in crop production and the consequences of this is the reduced economic incomes and increased poverty levels among small scale farmers. The decrease in crop productivity is partly due to the declining soil organic matter levels resulting in low release of nutrients upon mineralization and also reduce nutrient use efficiencies when fall below 3.4%. The strategies adopted by farmers to improve crop yie ... Continue Reading

Crop rotation is a system that involves production of different crop species on the same piece of land at alternate seasons. The impact and benefits of the system which is always hailed by researchers is greatly linked to its design in terms of crops included- with researchers concluding that nitrogen fixing legumes are the best to be rotated with cereals for the system as they offer several benefits in terms of efficient use of soil water and nutrients, improved soil physical and chemical ch ... Continue Reading

Zika fever also known as Zika virus disease or Zika is an infectious disease of global public health concern. The etiologic was isolated for the first time in 1947 from a captive sentinel rhesus monkey in Uganda, Africa. Later, the virus was recovered from the mosquito, Ades africanus caught from the Zika forest of Uganda. The disease gets its name from the Zika forest in Uganda. The first massive outbreak of Zika fever was record ... Continue Reading

In the past decade the principle idea of image fusion is gaining large momentum in the research and development in order to generate a fused image which carries much more comprehendible and accurate information. In the process of image fusion, to compute the fused pixel value either the weighted average of the input pixels is calculated where the weight given the pixel could be adaptively according to the algorithm. Where image fusion has a wide spread application i ... Continue Reading